Basic of Civil Engineering – UNITS SL NO Units Units 1. Area 2. Volume 3. Stress 4. Strain No Units 5. Force KN 6. Moment KNM” 7. Deflection mm 8. Density 9. Specific Gravity No Units 10. Discharge Clear Cover to main Reinforcement 1. Footings 50 mm 2. Raft Foundation Top 50 mm 3. …

## Strength and Deformation of Steel

Strength and Deformation of Steel a typical stress-strain curve for mild steel by the testing bar in uniaxial tension but behavior in compression is also assumed to be the same. The curve exhibits a linearly elastic behavior up to yield point stress fy. Beyond this point, the strain becomes plastic and increases considerably without …

## Tensile Strength of Concrete

The axial tensile strength of concrete is very less because concrete is a heterogeneous mass, and every heterogeneous mass is weak in tension and strong in compression. But there is some indirect method to find the tensile strength of concrete.A structure was designed based on the compressive strength of concrete. Therefore, most of the …

## Stress-Strain Curve for Concrete

stress-strain curve of concrete. It can be seen that the peak of stress (maximum compressive stress) for different grades of concrete is different but the strain value for all the grades is 0.002 i.e 0.2%. The value of stress at 0.002 strain is called compressive strength of concrete Lower strength concrete has greater deformability …

## Concrete Mix Design

The design of concrete mix design involves the selection of relative proportions of various ingredients of concrete to meet the criteria of characteristic strength, workability, and durability in the hardened state. The common method of expressing the proportions of ingredients of a concrete mix is in the terms of parts or ratios of cement, …

## Grade of Concrete

Grades of concrete are based on characteristic strength and the composition of the concrete, and the minimum strength that the concrete should have after 28 days of initial construction. Concrete quality is included in MPa measurements, where M stands for mix and MPa for overall strength. Concrete mixes are defined by an increasing number …

## Characteristic Strength Of Limit States IS 456

As per IS456 clause 36.1 Strength of cube size 150 x 150 x 150 mm after 28 days , below which not more than 5% of the test result are expected to fall. It is represented by M25 which means 25 N/mm2or 25 MPa. m = total number of samples Standard deviation -A quantity …

## Safety Against Limit States

Variation in Material Strength A) Variability of material strength due to the variation in the quality of ingredients and basic factors during the manufacture of concrete. This variation is allowed by fixing characteristic strength. Experiments have revealed that the probability distribution of concrete is approx. follow Gaussian distribution curve if the number of samples …

## Limit State Method 0f Design | Reinforced Cement Concrete |

Limit state method of design was introduced in 1970. As per IS 456 Clause 35.1, The term limit state means an unsatisfactory condition that curtails the specified life of a structure by making it unfit for the use it was intended for. Limit state design aims to achieve an acceptable probability that the structure …

## Hydraulic Valve Method

Hydraulic valve method This underwater concreting method was developed by the Dutch in 1969 and is accustomed to overcoming the load of concrete. This causes the concrete to maneuver slowly within the pipe and stop segregation. A rigid hollow section is employed to seal the top of the hose. This methodology is cheap and …