Category: Civil Technology

Lightweight Concrete

Lightweight Concrete

The concrete has a 28-day compressive strength of more than 17 MPa and an air-dried piece weight of no more than 1850 kg / m³. Lightweight concrete Similar to normal concrete, except with light aggregates or a combination of light and normal weight aggregates. All lightweight concretes use both light, coarse, and light fine …

Fire-Resistant Mortar

Fire-Resistant Mortar

The Fire-resistant mortar is made by mixing aluminous cement with the fine powder of the refractory bricks. In the event of fire warnings in the structures of a certain area, fire retardant mortar is used as fire-retardant protection. -The permanent mortar is a powder made from cement and special additives. This filler compound is …

Types of Mortar

Types of Mortar

Mortar is made by mixing a binder (cement or lime) with fine aggregate (sand, surkhi, etc.) with water. There are so many types of mortar are used for construction purposes. According to the materials used to make the mortar mix, the mortar could be classified as follows. Cement Mortar Lime Mortar Gauged Mortar Surkhi …

Plant And Machinery used for industrial activity

Plant And Machinery used for industrial activity

The term ‘plant’ refers to machinery, equipment and apparatus used for an industrial activity. Typically, in construction, ‘plant’ refers to heavy machinery and equipment used during construction works. The various machines used in the project are: Boom Placer (36/4)Boom placer is used for concrete pouring at different levels with the application of hydraulic jacks. …

Formwork

Formwork

Formwork in construction use support structures and moulds to create structures out of concrete which is poured into the mould. Formwork can be made using moulds out of steel, wood, aluminium and prefabricated forms. The construction of formwork takes time and involves expenditure up to 20-25% of the cost of the structure or even …

GROUTING

GROUTING

Grouting is the process of injecting grout material into interconnected pores or void space. Which occurred during the blasting of the face of the tunnel, the grout material may be a cementitious, resinous, or solution of a chemical mixture. In any section of the underground structure, the concrete lining within 100m of the section …

TUNNELLING

Hydropower Tunnel design

Hydropower Tunnel design The main design principle of unlined tunnels and shafts for hydropower plants is to place them in suitable rock mass with sufficient confinement. The placement is selected to avoid hydraulic jacking, which could lead to water leakages. Local sections with unstable rock mass, including swelling and/or friable materials are mapped and …

Surge Shaft And Drop Shaft

Surge Shaft And Drop Shaft

Surge Shaft And Drop Shaft- A surge shaft is a vertical tunnel that is frequently used with the pressure conduit of considerable duration. The main purpose of presenting a surge tank is to lessen the gap between the free water surface and turbine thereby decreasing the water hammer impact on the penstock and also …

PRESSURE SHAFT

PRESSURE SHAFT

The pressure shaft, partially horizontal and mainly vertical is an underground structure to convey the water from HRT to the powerhouse for Power generation. The shaft is of 3.9m diameter and 419 m long out of which 32.6m is a top horizontal portion, 114.4m vertical portion, and balance 272m of the bottom horizontal portion. …