Water Softening

WATER SOFTENING

Methods of Removing of Temporary Hardness Boiling Addition of Lime Method of Removing Permanents Hardness (i) Lime – soda process Lime removes the entire carbonate hardness The lime reacts with a non-carbonate hardness of magnesium to convert the non-carbonate hardness of calcium Non Carbonate hardness of Calcium is further removed by Soda Ash Dry Sluge…

SEWAGE TREATMENT

SEWAGE TREATMENT

Sewage Treatment process are often classified as 1) Preliminary treatment2) Primary treatment3) Secondary(Biological) treatment TREATMENT PROCESS The preliminary treatment works on separating the floating materials and also the heavy settleable inorganic solids. This treatment reduces the BOD of wastewater by about 15-30% Primary treatment consists of removing large, suspended organic solids. The organic solids, which…

DISINFECTION OR STERILIZATION

DISINFECTION OR STERILIZATION

DISINFECTION OR STERILIZATION Disinfection means killing pathogenic bacteria whereas sterilization means killing pathogenic and nonpathogenic bacteria both. Methods of Disinfection Minor Methods a) Boiling- It is the best method that removes 100% bacteria and another microorganism. Since the method is costly hence not suitable for mass public supply. b) Treatment with lime- Lime increases the…

WATER TREATMENT

WATER TREATMENT

Water treatment is any method that improves the water quality To remove color, turbidity, dissolved solids, suspended solids, objectionable taste and odor, excess hardness, salinity, toxic materials, various microorganism. Theory of Sedimentation It is the removal of suspended particles by gravitational settling. Sedimentation tanks designed to reduce the velocity of flow so as to reduce turbulence sedimentation…

CHARACTERISTIC OF WATER

CHARACTERISTIC OF WATER

Water has three characteristics, i.e. physical, chemical, and biological characteristics. The uncooked treated water may be checked and analyzed through analyzing and checking out these CHARACTERISTIC OF WATER as defined below: A) PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS a)Turbidity:- If a large amount of suspended matter such as clay, silt, or other organic material is present in water it will appear to be muddy or turbid…

WATER DEMAND AND SUPPLY

Water substances are drawn specifically from rivers, lakes, and groundwater. The hydrologic or water cycle renews water substances through transferring water from the oceans, as freshwater, to land. Average home water intake in Indian city=135lpcd. Different Types Of Demand Domestic Water Demand:- Industrial Water Demand:- Auto Mobile 40KL/Vehicle Paper (200-400)KL/torn Steel (200-250)KL/torune Sugar (1-2)KL/torue School (45-130)lpcd Hotels 180lpcd Fire Demand:- Its depend on the population of city.…

noise pollution

NOISE POLLUTION

Noise pollutants is likewise referred to as sound pollutants or environmental noise, Any undesirable sound which produces unwanted physiological outcomes on a person they outcomes in human beings or different dwelling organisms. Level of Noise A minimum sound strain may be heard by a human being=20µPa, and a Noise degree of eighty decibels or greater for greater than eight hours an afternoon will increase anxiety and adjustments in respiratory patterns. it changed into very dangerous for human beings and different dwelling organisms. The maximum sound produced by Rocket=2 hundred Pa Level denoted:- Q is measured quantity and Qo is Std. reference…

AIR POLLUTION SOURCE CONTROL TECHNOLOGY

AIR POLLUTION SOURCE CONTROL TECHNOLOGY

AIR POLLUTION SOURCE CONTROL TECHNOLOGY refers to any physical, chemical, or organic extra inside the air. It is the infection of air with the aid of using dangerous gases, dirt, and smoke that impacts plants, animals, and people drastically. There is a positive percent of gases gift withinside the atmosphere. A boom or lower withinside…

TYPES OF PLUMES

TYPES OF PLUMES

Plumes:- Behavior of gases emitted from Stack depends upon the prevailing Environmental Conditions. Different types of plume behavior for various atmospheric stability conditions. (1) Looping Plume: Plume is formed when the environmental lapse rate becomes more than the Dry Adiabatic Lapse Rate i.e. occurs in a super adiabatic environment. In an unstable Atmosphere, rapid air…