## Standard Penetration Test

Standard Penetration Test (S.P.T) (IS 2131) It is used to determine the Relative density of undisturbed sand and silt, consistency of clay. Split spoon samples are used for this test. The pattern is first pushed through mild blows of the hammer to a seating penetration of 15cm than the pattern is pushed below complete blows of 65kg with unfastened fall of 75cm hammer to extra penetration of 30cm. The range of blows required…

Plate load Test (IS1888)⟹ This test is used to find the ultimate bearing capacity by the load-settlement curve. A test plate square or circular in the shape of size either 30cm,60cm,75cm but in no case less than 30cm and thickness 25cm. A large size plate is used for loose or soft soil and a smaller…

## Terzaghi Theory

Terzaghi’s Principle states that once a rock is subjected to pressure, it’s miles adversarial through the fluid strain of pores withinside the rock. analyzing that overall pressure is the same as the sum of powerful pressure and pore water strain. Assumption (1) The soil is semi-infinite, homogeneous andisotropic(2) the problem is two-dimensional,(strip footing)(3) the base of the footing is rough,(4) the failure is by general shear,(5) the load is vertical and symmetrical,(6) the ground surface is horizontal,(7)…

## Shear Failure Of Foundation Soils

Types of Failure (A) General Shear Failure (B) Local Shear Failure (C) Punching Shear Failure Types of shear failure of foundation soils Depending on the stiffness of basis soil and intensity of basis, the subsequent are the modes of shear failure skilled through the inspiration soil.nding on the stiffness of foundation soil and depth of foundation, the following are the modes of shear failure experienced by the foundation…

## Shallow Foundation

Foundation⇒ is the supporting base of a structure that transmits the load from the structure to the Natural ground and takes reaction back. Shallow Foundation⇒ If D/B<1, i.e if the depth of the foundation is less than the width of the foundation than foundation is considered to be Shallow. Spread/Pad Footing⇒ Used for single Column…

## Stability of Finite Slope

In the Stability of Finite Slope early 1900, Swedish scientist, W.Fellenius, proved the surface of earth slopes resembles the shape of a circular arc. These slides are termes as rotational slides. These can be divided into Face Failure⟹ these type of failure occur when slope angle β is quite high and soil near the toe…

## Stability Of Slopes

Slope balance refers back to the situation of willing soil or rock slopes to face up to or go through the movement. Similarly, a Stability Of Slopes can be locally stable if a safety factor larger than 1 is computed along any potential sliding surface running through a limited portion of the slope we study about Failure of Slopes, Factor of safety Slopes⇒ A soil mass, whilst the elevation of the floor steadily change. Natural…

## Coulomb Theory of Earth Pressure

Coulomb’s concept states that the entire lateral earth strain is the same as the response exerted via way of means of the keeping wall while the wedge of soil has a tendency to slip and acts at an attitude eight with the ordinary to the again of the wall. The backfill is dry, cohesionless, isotropic, Backfill can be inclined. There could be friction among the wall and the soil. Failure aircraft is thought to be an aircraft surface (however in reality curved), Sliding wedge is thought to be a rigid-body. Active earth pressure decreases while considering wall…

## Lateral Earth Pressure

What is the difference between the lateral earth pressure of water and soil? The shear strength of water is zero, hence but the shear strength of the soil is not zero hence For all material where “K” is constant. For water K, but for soil „K‟ depend upon the type of soil, the direction of…