Paints Notes


Paints are applied at the surfaces of timber, metals, and plastered surfaces as a protecting layer and at the same time to get a pleasant appearance.
Paints are applied in liquid form and after some time the volatile constituent evaporates and hardened coating acts as a protective layer.

Constituents of Paint:-

The essential constituents of paints are:

  1. Base
  2. A vehicle
  3. A pigment
  4. A drier
  5. A thinner.

1. Bases:

  • It is a principal constituent of paint. It also possesses binding properties.
  • It forms an opaque coating.
  • Commonly used bases for paints are white lead, purple lead, ZnO,  Fe2O3, titanium white, Al powder, and lithophone.
  • Lead paint is appropriate to portray iron and steelworks because it sticks to them well. However, it’s miles tormented by ecosystem motion and therefore have to now no longer be used because of the very last coat.
  • While zinc bureaucracy a great base however is costly.
  • Lithophone, which is a combination of zinc sulfate and barytes, is cheap. It offers a great look however is suffering from daylight. Hence it’s miles used for indoor work only.

2. Vehicles:

  • The vehicles are the liquid substances that hold the ingredients of paint in liquid suspension and allow them to be applied on the surface to be painted.
  • Linseed oil, Tung oil, and Nut oil are used as automobiles in paints.
  • Of the above four oils, linseed oil is a very commonly used vehicle. Boiling makes the oil thicker and darker. Linseed oil reacts with oxygen and hardens by forming a skinny film.

3. Pigment:

  • Pigments supply the specified colour for paints. They are best debris and feature a reinforcing impact on the skinny movie of the paint.
  • Pigments may be labeled as both herbal or artificial.
  • Natural pigments encompass diverse clays, calcium carbonate, mica, silicas, and talcs. Synthetics might encompass engineered molecules, calcined clays, blanc fixe, brought on calcium carbonate, and artificial pyrogenic silicas.

4. The Drier:

  • These are the compounds of steel like lead, manganese, cobalt.
  • The characteristic of a drier is to soak up oxygen from the air and deliver it to the automobile for hardening.
  • The drier ought to now no longer be brought till the paint is ready to be used.
  • The excess drier is harmful because it destroys elasticity and causes flaking.

5. The Thinner:

  • It is known as solvent also.
  • It makes paint thinner and subsequently will increase the coverage.
  • It allows in spreading paint uniformly over the floor Turpentine and naphtha are normally used thinners. After paint applied, thinner evaporates and paint dries.

Properties of an Ideal Paint:-

  1. It must be feasible to use without difficulty and freely.
  2. It must dry in an inexpensive time.
  3. It must shape a tough and sturdy surface.
  4. It should not be harmful to the health of workers.
  5. It should not be easily affected by the atmosphere.
  6. It should possess an attractive and pleasing appearance.
  7. It should form a thin film of uniform nature i.e., it should not crack.
  8. It should possess good spreading power.
  9. It should be cheap.

Types of Paints:

  1. Oil Paint: These paints are implemented in 3 coats-primer, undercoat, and completing coat. The presence of dampness even as making use of the primer adversely impacts the existence of oil paint. This paint is easy to apply and it is cheaper in cost.
  2. Enamel Paint: It consists of white lead, oil, petroleum spirit, and resinous material. The floor supplied through it resists acids, alkalies, and water very well. It is appropriate to use a coat of titanium white earlier than the coat of teeth is applied. It may be used each for outside and inner walls.
  3. Emulsion Paint: It consists of binding substances which include polyvinyl acetate, artificial resins, etc. It dries in 1.five to two hours and it is simple to apply. It is extra long lasting and may be wiped clean with water. For plastered surfaces, first, a coat of cement paint have to be carried out after which the emulsion point. Emulsion paint desires sound surfaces.
  4. Cement Paint: It is to be had in powder form. It includes white cement, pigment, and different additives. It is long-lasting and reveals a super ornamental appearance. It ought to be carried out on tough surfaces in preference to on easy surfaces. It is carried out in coats. The first coat is carried out at the moist floor however loose from extra water and allowed to dry for twenty-four hours. The 2d coat is then carried out which offers an awesome appearance.
  5. Bituminous Paints: This kind of paint is synthetic via way of means of dissolving asphalt or vegetable bitumen in oil or petroleum. It is black in color. It is used for portraying ironworks underwater.
  6. Synthetic Rubber Paint: This is prepared from resins. It dries quickly and is little affected by weather and sunlight. It resists chemical attack well. This paint may be applied even on fresh concrete. Its cost is moderate and it can be applied easily.
  7. Aluminum Paint: It contains finely ground aluminum in spirit or oil varnish. It is visible in darkness also. The surfaces of iron and steel are protected well with this paint. It is widely used for painting gas tanks, water pipes, and oil tanks.
  8. Anti-corrosive Paint: It consists essentially of oil, a strong dier, leads or zinc chrome, and finely ground sand. It is cheap and resists corrosion well. It is black in color.

Application of Paint

The guidance of the floor for the software of paint is the maximum essential a part of the painting. The floor to be painted ought to now no longer be oily and it ought to be from flakes of the antique paint. Cracks withinside the floor ought to be full of putty after which with sandpaper. Then primer is applied. Painting paintings ought to be finished in dry weather. The undercoats and primary coats have to be allowed to dry earlier than the very last coat is applied.

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