Road Development in India

Road Development in India

Mohenjo-Daro and Harappa have revealed the existence of roads in India (period might be around 25 to 35 BC) Aryan, Kausalya, Ashoka, Mughals also constructed roads in their period.

Road Development in India As of 31 March 2004, the length of the National Highways stood at 65569 km. A state-wise list of National Highways passing through the States is given in Appendix–C. For development and maintenance, these have been entrusted to Border Roads Organisation (BRO), National Highways Authority of India (NHAI), and State PWDs as per details given in Appendix- D.
Appendix-E gives state-wise revised allocation under different schemes on the development and maintenance of National Highways during 2003-04.

Modern period Road Development in India

Jaykar committee constituted in 1927 they proposed extra tax on petrol to develop a fund called “central road fund” most of the recommendation made by Jaykar committee accepted and following steps were taken.

  1. Central road fund formed in 1929.
  2. A semiofficial technical body is known as the Indian road congress (IRC) formed in 1934
  3. In 1939 Motor vehicle Act –started & in 1950 CRRI (central road research institute) started

IRC formulated the last three,20years of road development plans in India.


  • Prepared on the basis of star and grid pattern
  • Density 16km/100km2 area (target)
  • Roads were classified in 5 categories (a) NH (b) SH (c)MDR (d) ODR (e)VR

 (NH + SH+ MDR )_{in\: KM} = [\frac{A}{8}+\frac{B}{32}+1.6N+8T]+D-R

NH+SH+MDR = Total length of first category or metaled roads for national & states highways & major district roads in km
A = Agriculture area in km2
B = Non-agriculture area in km2
N = Number of town & villages with population range 2001-5000
T = Number of town & villages with a population over 5000
D = Development allowance of 15% of road length calculated to be provided for agricultural & industrial development during the next 20 years.
R = Existing length of railway track in km.

 (ODR +VR )_{in\: KM} = [0.32V+0.8Q+1.6P+3.2S+D]

ODR+VR= Total length of second category roads for other district roads & village roads in km.
V= Number of villages with a population range of 500 or less.
Q= Number of villages with population range 501- 1000.
P= Number of villages with population range 1001-2000.
S= Number of villages with population range 2001-5000.
D= Development of allowance of 15% for the next 20 years.


  • Target Density 32km/100km2
  • 1600 Km Expressways have been considered in this plan within the proposed target of NH

 NH = [\frac{A}{64}+\frac{B}{80}+\frac{C}{96}] +[32K+8M]+D

NH= Length of national highways in km
A= Developed and Agriculture areas in km2
B= Semi developed area in km2
C= Undeveloped area in km2
K= Number of towns with a population over 1,00000
M= Number of towns with population range 100000-50000
D= Development allowance of 5% of road length calculated for further development and other unforeseen factors.


  • Target density →82km/100km2
  • Roads are classified into primary, secondary, and territory road systems.
A. Primary Road system :

This includes:
(a) Expressways of total length 2000 km.
(b) N.H. based on the concept of 100 km Square grids 100+100=200 km of N.H. length is provided per 100×100=10000 square km area.
This Means 1 km per 50 square km area.

  • The total length of N.H.(according to this concept), in the country=66000 km
B. Secondary Road system :

1. S.H (State Highway), 2. M.D.R. (Major district road)

 (a)\: length\: of\: S.H\: in\: km\: =\frac{Area\: of\: state}{25}km^{2}
 (b)\: Length\: of\: S.H\:. in\: km\:= 6.25 \times no. \:of\: towns \:in \:state \: \frac{Area\: of\: state}{50}km^{2}

2.  (a) Length of M.D.R. in km = \frac{Area\: of\: state(km^{2})}{1.25}
Length of MDR in km =90x No. of town in state.

C. Tertiory Road system

This includes

  1. ODR (other district roads) &
  2. VR (village roads)
    • Length of ODR+VR can be calculated using a selected density for overall road like x km per 100 area then subtract the value of NH+SH+MDR

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