- Foundation⇒ is the supporting base of a structure that transmits the load from the structure to the Natural ground and takes reaction back.
- Shallow Foundation⇒ If D/B<1, i.e if the depth of the foundation is less than the width of the foundation than foundation is considered to be Shallow.
- Spread/Pad Footing⇒ Used for single Column
- Strip Footing⇒ Used to support the wall.
- Mat/Raft Foundation⇒ It is a single slab covering the total area. If the spread footing or strip footing is covering more than 50% area and bearing capacity of the soil is low than Raft footing is used to cover the entire area. It reduces the differential settlement.
- Combined Footing⇒ these footings are usually constructed due to space limitation, and support two or more columns.
- Floating Foundation or Compensated Foundation ⇒if a raft, is placed at such a depth that the intensity of imposed loading due to structure and foundation does not exceed or become less than the initially existing pressure at the depth prior to excavation.
All the foundation should extend to a minimum depth of 50cm below the natural ground level (IS-1904) to save the foundation from the environmental effect.
Two important factors that are to be considered are
- The foundation must be stable against the shear failure of the supporting soil.
- The foundation must not settle beyond a tolerable limit to avoid damage to the structure.
A building/residence may be described as a shape extensively consisting of additives like basis, columns, walls, beams, floors, roofs erected to offer an area for extraordinary makes use of which include residence, education, business, manufacturing, storage, hospitalization, entertainment, worship, etc. Each of those additives has its precise feature and purpose. Every building/residence has principal additives. The issue that’s built above the floor is understood as super-shape whilst the issue that’s built underneath the floor is known as sub-shape. Foundation falls into the class of sub-shape. Here we’re going to talk about shallow foundations. Before knowledge of what’s shallow basis allows us to understand what’s basis. A basis is a bottom a part of a shape/domestic that’s in direct touch with the floor. It presents a base for super-shape and transfers the burden of the shape along with the useless weight of the shape itself to the soil underneath in order that it stands corporation and strong for its life.
When the inspiration is positioned without delay under the bottom a part of the outstanding structure, it’s far termed as a shallow basis. A shallow basis (as described through B1/VM4) is that basis wherein the intensity from the floor to the bottom of the inspiration is much less than 5 instances the width of the inspiration. Shallow foundations may be built in a quick time, which additionally allows in decreasing the price of the hiring system and labor.
This is the maximum not unusual place sort of a basis and used for all small buildings. and maybe laid the usage of open excavation through permitting herbal slopes on all sides. This sort of basis is plausible for intensity as much as five-meter and is typically handy above the water table.
Why We Use Shallow Foundation?
We use a shallow basis to distribute the structural masses over a huge horizontal region at shallow intensity beneath the floor level. The shallow basis is favorable for foundations having intensity as same as the basis width or wherein intensity is much less than the width.
Advantages of Shallow Foundation
- It calls for much less excavation as a result lessens labor fee of excavation work.
- Construction of shallow foundations is straightforward because the intensity concerned in putting the inspiration is much less.
- Equipment required for the production of shallow bases are easy and additionally much less costly.