1. Ordinary Portland cement
It is used where there three is no. exposure of sulphate attack in soil or in ground water. It is available in 33, 43, 53 grades. Cement grade indicates the compression strength of the cement mortar after 28 days of setting. 43 Grade cement attains compression strength of 43 MPa (mega pascal) in 28 days of setting compared to 53 MPa attained by 53 Grade cement. 53 Grade cement is used for fast paced construction where initial strength is to be achieved quickly. 53 Grade cement has a fast setting compared to 43-grade cement. 53 Grade attains 27 MPa in 7days compared to 23 MPa by 43-grade cement.
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2. Rapid Hardening Cement
Strength develops rapidly because of high ( ) and higher fines. It should not be used for mass concreting as more heat is liberated in less time which leads to shrinkage of concrete. Rapid Hardening cement has higher gypsum which also leads to the early setting.
3. Sulphate resisting cement
Dissolved in water, sulfate will penetrate hardened concrete. The effect on the concrete is an expansion that tears the concrete apart. The tricalcium aluminate is the compound in hardened cement with which the sulfate reacts, therefore limiting C3A in cement to less than 8%. In cement, this limits the prevents formation of the expansive compounds Sulphate attack on concrete is also accelerated by alternate wetting and drying. For Marine structures (Structure near to sea) that cement is used which is having limited to 3.5%.
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4. White Cement
Made up of china clay, which contains little Iron Oxide and. MnO. White cement is produced using a process similar to that of gray cement, although the raw materials differ significantly. The content of iron oxide and iron sulfate in the limestone should be as low as possible, as every 0.1% increase in the iron oxide content reduces the reflectivity of the cement by 2.5%. Making darker cement. To ensure that all raw materials in the kiln are completely converted without iron oxide, mineralizers are added and higher temperatures are used, which uses more fuel. In addition, the white clinker must be cooled quickly, often with often water, to avoid the oxidation of traces of iron impurities that would darken the cement. The higher selectivity of the raw materials and the greater complexity of production make the production of white cement more expensive.
5. Portland Blast furnace Cement
Blast furnace slag, which is a waste of the steel industry is used to produce cement. This cement requires low energy consumption. This cement can be used in mass concreting because of the low rate of heat hydration and better Sulphate resisting. (avoid using in cold weather).
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6. Pozzolan Portland Cement
Pozzolan is a material that itself does not contain cementitious property but in finely divided form and in presence of moisture, reacts with lime to give a compound of cementitious property. This type of cement gains strength slowly, so the curing time is long but strength is high. It can be used in mass concrete fly ash (pulverized fuel ash) is a common pozzolan. (avoid using in cold weather)
- It increases workability as it requires less water.
- It is resistant to sulfate and acid attack.
7. High Alumina Cement also known as Calcium Aluminate Cement
When Limestone or chalk mixed with Bauxite (Aluminum ore) and heated high alumina cement is produced. This cement gain strength very rapidly and is very resisting in Sulphate attack and acid attack. The initial setting time is 3 hours, the final setting time of cement is 5 hours.No no free lime hence no unsoundness problem. It shall not be used in mass concrete in view of the high heat of hydration; Accelerators like calcium chloride shall not be used with this cement.
- The main advantage is that it can withstand high temperatures so that it can be used in refractories, foundries, and other workshops where high temperatures are involved.
- It can be used in cold area where rapid strength development is required.
8. Expansive Cement
Expansive types of cement are hydraulic cement which, unlike Portland cement, expand during the early hydration period after setting and high resistance to Sulphate attack. Since they are highly waterproof, expansive cement is used for sealing joints between prefabricated reinforced concrete structural members, for reliable waterproofing in certain hydraulic engineering structures, and for manufacturing reinforced concrete pressure pipes.
9. Low heat Portland cement
Hydration of cement is an exothermic process that produces a large quantity of heat. In mass concrete structures such as dams, retaining walls, bridge abutment, raft, etc the rate of dissipation of heat of hydration from the surface is much lower than that generated. It causes a rise in temperature inside the concrete mass and may develop thermal and shrinkage cracks. Under these circumstances, the low heat cement or low heat portland cement can be effectively used. In low heat cement, ingredients are proportioned in such a way that C3A and C3S are formed in fewer amounts but C2S is formed in increased amounts so that C2S and C3S collectively impart the same strength as Ordinary Portland Cement Portland. The initial setting time is not less than 60minutes and the final setting time is 600minutes.
10. Hydrophobic cement
Hydrophobic cement deteriorates very little during prolonged storage under unfavorable conditions like extreme wet conditions. The usual hydrophobic admixtures are idols, naphthene soap, oxidized petroleum, etc. These substances form a thin film around cement grains which prevents the normal hardening of the cement.
It increases frost resistance.
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11. Air entraining Cement
Air-entrained cement contains billions of microscopic air cells(The air bubbles are typically 10 to 500 micrometres) in diameter per cubic foot. These air pockets relieve internal pressure on the concrete by providing tiny chambers for water to expand into when it freezes. Air-entrained concrete is produced using air-entraining portland cement, or by the introduction of air-entraining agents (Calcium lignosulphate), under careful engineering supervision, as the concrete is mixed on the job. The amount of entrained air is usually between four and seven percent.
- Air entraining increases the workability also, hence decrease the strength and density of concrete.
- Air entraining agent, known as a surfactant (Ex Neutralized vinyl resin, )
- Animal and vegetable fats, oil, and their acids could be used. Wetting agents, aluminum powder, hydrogen peroxide could also be used
12. Quick Setting Cement
The quick setting cement is manufactured by adding a small percentage of aluminium sulphate and then it is finely ground with cement. And also for quick setting action, a small percentage of gypsum or retarder is added. The aluminium sulphate is mainly added to accelerate the setting time fast. Quick setting cement when mixed with water starts to set in five minutes and become hard like a stone in just 30 minutes.